In addition to these broad topic areas, oceanography includes topics from a number of other disciplines like geography, biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology and physics.
History of OceanographyThe world's oceans have long been a source of interest for humans and people first began gathering information about waves and currents hundreds of years ago. Some of the first studies on tides were collected by the Greek philosopher Aristotle and the Greek geographer Strabo.
Some of the earliest oceanic explorations were in an attempt to map the world's oceans to make navigation easier. However, this was mainly limited to areas that were regularly fished and well-known. This changed in the 1700s though when explorers like Captain James Cook extended their explorations into previously unexplored regions. During Cook's voyages from 1768 to 1779 for example, he circumnavigated areas such as New Zealand, mapped coastlines, explored the Great Barrier Reef and even studied portions of the Southern Ocean.
During the late 18th and into the early 19th centuries, some of the first oceanographic textbooks were written by James Rennell, an English geographer and historian, about ocean currents Charles Darwin also contributed to the development of oceanography in the late 1800s when he published a paper on coral reefs and the formation of atolls after his second voyage on the HMS Beagle.
The first official textbook covering the various topics within oceanography was later written in 1855 when Matthew Fontaine Murray, an American oceanographer, meteorologist and cartographer, wrote Physical Geography of the Sea.
Shortly thereafter, oceanographic studies exploded when the British, American and other European governments sponsored expeditions and scientific studies of the world's oceans. These expeditions brought back information on ocean biology, physical formations and meteorology.
In addition to such expeditions, many oceanographic institutes were formed in the late 1880s. For example, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography was formed in 1892. 1902, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea was formed; creating the first international organization of oceanography and in the mid-1900s, other research institutions focused on oceanography were formed.
Recent oceanographic studies have involved the use of modern technology to gain a more in depth understanding of the world's oceans. Since the 1970s for example, oceanography has emphasized the use of computers to predict ocean conditions. Today, studies focus mainly on environmental changes, climate phenomena like El Niño and sea floor mapping.
Topics in OceanographyLike geography, oceanography is multi-disciplinary and incorporates a number of different sub-categories or topics. Biological oceanography is one of these and it studies the different species, their living patterns and interactions within the sea. For example, different ecosystems and their characteristics such as coral reefs versus kelp forests can be studied within this topic area.
Chemical oceanography studies the different chemical elements present in seawater and how they interact with the Earth's atmosphere. For example, nearly every element in the periodic table is found in the ocean. This is important because the world's oceans serve as a reservoir for elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus- each of which can impact the Earth's atmosphere.
Ocean/atmosphere interactions is another topic area in oceanography that studies the links between climate changes, global warming and concerns for the biosphere as a result. Mainly, the atmosphere and oceans are linked because of evaporation and precipitation. In addition, weather patterns like wind drive ocean currents and move around different species and pollution.
Finally, geological oceanography studies the geology of the seafloor (such as ridges and trenches) and plate tectonics, while physical oceanography studies the ocean's physical characteristics which include the temperature-salinity structure, mixing levels, waves, tides and currents.
Importance of OceanographyToday, oceanography is a significant field of study throughout the world. As such, there are many different institutions devoted to studying the discipline such as the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the United Kingdom's National Oceanography Centre in Southampton. Oceanography is an independent discipline in academic with graduate and undergraduate degrees being issued in oceanography.
In addition, oceanography is significant to geography because the fields have overlapped in terms of navigation, mapping and the physical and biological study of Earth's environment- in this case the oceans.
For more on oceanography, visit the Ocean Science Series website, from the National Academy of Sciences.