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Basic Earth Facts

22 Essential Facts You Need to Know About The Planet Earth

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Basic Earth Facts
Getty Images/Tanya Constantine
Updated April 10, 2014
Here you will find a listing of essential facts about the planet earth, the home to all of humanity:

Human Population of the Earth: 7,039,191,305 (estimated as of Sept. 14, 2012)

World Population Growth: 1.092% - 2009 estimate (this means at the current rate of growth, the earth's population will double in about 64 years)

Countries of the World: 196

Earth's Circumference at the Equator: 24,901.55 miles (40,075.16 km)

Earth's Circumference Between the North and South Poles: 24,859.82 miles (40,008 km)

Earth's Diameter at the Equator: 7,926.28 miles (12,756.1 km)

Earth's Diameter at the Poles: 7,899.80 miles (12,713.5 km)

Average Distance from the Earth to the Sun: 93,020,000 miles (149,669,180 km)

Average Distance from the Earth to the Moon: 238,857 miles (384,403.1 km)

Highest Elevation on Earth - Mt. Everest, Asia: 29,035 feet (8850 m)

Tallest Mountain on Earth from Base to Peak - Mauna Kea, Hawaii: 33,480 feet (rising to 13,796 feet above sea level) (10204 m; 4205 m)

Point Farthest From the Center of the Earth - The peak of the volcano Chimborazo in Ecuador at 20,561 feet (6267 m) is farthest from the center of the earth due to its location near the equator and the oblateness of the Earth.

Lowest Elevation on Land - Dead Sea: 1369 feet below sea level (417.27 m)

Deepest Point in the Ocean - Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench, Western Pacific Ocean: 35,840 feet (10924 m)

Highest Temperature Recorded: 134°F (56.7°C) - Greenland Ranch in Death Valley, California, July 10, 1913

Lowest Temperature Recorded: -128.5°F (-89.2°C) - Vostok, Antarctica, July 21, 1983

Water vs. Land: 70.8% Water, 29.2% Land

Age of the Earth: 4.5 to 4.6 billion years

Atmosphere Content: 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and traces of argon, carbon dioxide and water

Rotation on Axis: 23 hours and 56 minutes and 04.09053 seconds. But, it takes an additional four minutes for the earth to revolve to the same position as the day before relative to the sun (i.e. 24 hours).

Revolution around Sun: 365.2425 days

Chemical Composition of the Earth: 34.6% Iron, 29.5% Oxygen, 15.2% Silicon, 12.7% Magnesium, 2.4% Nickel, 1.9% Sulfur, and 0.05% Titanium

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