Scandinavia is a large region of Northern Europe that is mainly made up of the Scandinavian Peninsula. As such, it includes the countries of Norway and Sweden. In addition, Denmark, Finland and Iceland are also included in Scandinavia. Geographically, the Scandinavian Peninsula is the largest peninsula in Europe and it extends from above the Arctic Circle at 66.5°N latitude south to the North and Baltic Seas.
The following is a list of the five countries comprising Scandinavia and a little bit of information about each of them. All information was obtained from the Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook.
Norway is located in Northern Europe on the Scandinavian Peninsula between the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean. It has an area of 125,020 square miles (323,802 sq km) and 15,626 miles (25,148 km) of coastline. Norway's topography is varied with high plateaus and rugged, glaciated mountain ranges that are separated by fertile valleys and plains. It also has a rugged coastline that is made up of many fjords. Its climate is temperate along the coast due to the North Atlantic Current, while inland it is cold and wet.
Norway has a population 4,676,305 (July 2010 estimate) and its capital city is Oslo. Its economy is growing and it is based mainly on industries like petroleum and gas, shipbuilding and fishing.
Sweden is also located in Northern Europe on the Scandinavian Peninsula. It is bordered to the west by Norway and Finland to the east and it is along the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia. Sweden covers an area of 173,860 square miles (450,295 sq km) and it has 1,999 miles (3,218 km) of coastline. The topography of Sweden flat to rolling lowlands as well as mountains in its western areas near Norway. Its highest point, Kebnekaise at 6,926 feet (2,111 m) is located there. The climate of Sweden is temperate in the south and subarctic in the north.
The capital and largest city in Sweden is Stockholm which is located on its east coast. Sweden has a population of 9,074,055 (July 2010 estimate). It also has a strong, developed economy.
Denmark is located in Northern Europe north of Germany. It has coastlines which cover 4,545 miles (7,314 km) that are along the Baltic and North Seas. The total land area of Denmark is 16,638 square miles (43,094 sq km). This area includes the mainland of Denmark as well as two large islands that are called Sjaelland and Fyn. The topography of Denmark consists mostly of low and flat plains. The highest point in Denmark is Mollehoj/Ejer Bavnehoj at 561 feet (171 m), while its lowest point is Lammefjord at -23 feet (-7 m). The climate of Denmark is mainly temperate and it has cool but humid summers and windy, mild winters.
The capital of Denmark is Copenhagen and the country has a population of 5,515,575 (July 2010 estimate).
Finland is a Northern European country that is located between Sweden and Russia and northern border with Norway. It covers a total land area of 130,558 square miles (338,145 sq km) and has 776 miles (1,250 km) of coastline. Finland has coasts along Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland. The topography of Finland consists of low rolling plains as well as many lakes. The highest point in Finland is Haltiatunturi at 4,357 feet (1,328 m). Finland's climate is cold temperate and as such, it is relatively mild despite its high latitude. This is due to the moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current and many lakes.
The population of Finland is 5,255,068 (July 2010 estimate) and its capital is Helsinki.
Iceland is an island nation located in Northern Europe just south of the Arctic Circle. By most accounts it is considered a Scandinavian country. It has a total land area of 39,768 square miles (103,000 sq km) and a coastline that covers 3,088 miles (4,970 km). The topography of Iceland is varied and it is one of the most volcanic regions in the world. As such it has a rugged landscape with hot springs, sulphur beds, geysers, lava fields, canyons and waterfalls. There are also many active volcanoes in Iceland. Iceland's climate is temperate and it is moderated by the Gulf Stream. It has mild, windy winters and wet, cool summers.
The capital of Iceland is Reykjavik and its population is 308,910 (July 2010 estimate).