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Togo[Country flag of Togo]
[Country map of Togo]

Introduction Togo
Background:
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, continued to rule well into the 21st century. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continued to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party maintained power almost continually since 1967. Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. While most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen, the European Union initiated a partial resumption of cooperation and development aid to Togo in late 2004. Upon his death in February 2005, President EYADEMA was succeeded by his son Faure GNASSINGBE. The succession, supported by the military and in contravention of the nation's constitution, was challenged by popular protest and a threat of sanctions from regional leaders. GNASSINGBE succumbed to pressure and agreed to hold elections in late April 2005.
Geography Togo
Location:
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates:
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references:
Africa
Area:
total: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline:
56 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain:
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 46.15%
permanent crops: 2.21%
other: 51.64% (2001)
Irrigated land:
70 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
People Togo
Population:
5,681,519
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 43.2% (male 1,232,759/female 1,224,060)
15-64 years: 54.2% (male 1,505,737/female 1,571,201)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 60,799/female 86,963) (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 17.78 years
male: 17.42 years
female: 18.14 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.17% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
33.48 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
11.8 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 66.61 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 74.24 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 58.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 57.01 years
male: 55.02 years
female: 59.06 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.61 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
4.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
110,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
10,000 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2004)
Nationality:
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:
native African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%
Languages:
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
Government Togo
Country name:
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique Togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
Government type:
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Lome
Administrative divisions:
5 regions (regions, singular - region); Kara, Plateaux, Savanes, Centrale, Maritime
Independence:
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution:
multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:
French-based court system
Suffrage:
NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 6 February 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE; popular elections in April 2005 validated the succession
head of government: Prime Minister Edem KODJO (since 8 June 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1.0%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.6%
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 October 2002 (next to be held NA 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPT 72, RSDD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1
note: two opposition parties boycotted the election, the Union of the Forces for Change, and the Action Committee for Renewal
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP [leader NA]; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
note: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT, led by President GNASSINGBE, was the only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ABEDA, ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Akoussoulelou BODJONA
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Gregory ENGLE
embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue 15 Beniglato, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through 221 29 94
FAX: [228] 221 79 52
Flag description:
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy Togo
Economy - overview:
This small sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate, but production fell an estimated 22% in 2002 due to power shortages and the cost of developing new deposits. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on following through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$8.684 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 39.5%
industry: 20.4%
services: 40.1% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
1.74 million (1996)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 65%, industry 5%, services 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA (2003 est.)
Population below poverty line:
32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
19.1% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $239.2 million
expenditures: $273.3 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industries:
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement; handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
NA
Electricity - production:
108.8 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 98.7%
hydro: 1.3%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
451.2 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:
350 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2002)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
10,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA
Oil - imports:
NA
Current account balance:
$-125.6 million (2004 est.)
Exports:
$663.1 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners:
Burkina Faso 16.4%, Ghana 15.1%, Benin 9.4%, Mali 7.6%, China 7.5%, India 5.6% (2004)
Imports:
$824.9 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
China 25.5%, India 13.3%, France 11.5% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$267.4 million (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
$1.4 billion (2000)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA $80 million (2000 est.)
Currency (code):
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code:
XOF
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Togo
Telephones - main lines in use:
60,600 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
220,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios:
940,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Televisions:
73,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
.tg
Internet hosts:
82 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
3 (2001)
Internet users:
210,000 (2003)
Transportation Togo
Railways:
total: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2004)
Highways:
total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1999 est.)
Waterways:
50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Kpeme, Lome
Merchant marine:
total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT
by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2005)
Airports:
9 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Military Togo
Military branches:
Togolese Armed Forces (FAT): Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2001)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,148,890 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 629,933 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$35.5 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
1.9% (2004)
Transnational Issues Togo
Disputes - international:
in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary
Illicit drugs:
transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem

This page was last updated on 1 November, 2005


 

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