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Serbia and Montenegro 
[Country map of Serbia and Montenegro]

Introduction Serbia and Montenegro
Background:
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Occupation by Nazi Germany in 1941 was resisted by various paramilitary bands that fought each other as well as the invaders. The group headed by Marshal TITO took full control upon German expulsion in 1945. Although Communist, his new government and its successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In the early 1990s, post-TITO Yugoslavia began to unravel along ethnic lines: Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina were recognized as independent states in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia" (FRY) in April 1992 and, under President Slobodan MILOSEVIC, Serbia led various military intervention efforts to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." All of these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful and led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992. In 1998-99, massive expulsions by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo provoked an international response, including the NATO bombing of Serbia and the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR), in Kosovo. Federal elections in the fall of 2000, brought about the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. The arrest of MILOSEVIC in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations under the name of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Kosovo has been governed by the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since June 1999, under the authority of UN Security Council Resolution 1244, pending a determination by the international community of its future status. In 2002, the Serbian and Montenegrin components of Yugoslavia began negotiations to forge a looser relationship. These talks became a reality in February 2003 when lawmakers restructured the country into a loose federation of two republics called Serbia and Montenegro. The Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro includes a provision that allows either republic to hold a referendum after three years that would allow for their independence from the state union.
Geography Serbia and Montenegro
Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Albania and Bosnia and Herzegovina
Geographic coordinates:
44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map references:
Europe
Area:
total: 102,350 sq km
land: 102,136 sq km
water: 214 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Kentucky
Land boundaries:
total: 2,246 km
border countries: Albania 287 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 527 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia (north) 241 km, Croatia (south) 25 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Romania 476 km
Coastline:
199 km
Maritime claims:
NA
Climate:
in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); central portion, continental and Mediterranean climate; to the south, Adriatic climate along the coast, hot, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall inland
Terrain:
extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills; to the southwest, extremely high shoreline with no islands off the coast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m
Natural resources:
oil, gas, coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, hydropower, arable land
Land use:
arable land: 33.35%
permanent crops: 3.2%
other: 63.45% (2001)
Irrigated land:
570 sq km
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
pollution of coastal waters from sewage outlets, especially in tourist-related areas such as Kotor; air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East; strategic location along the Adriatic coast
People Serbia and Montenegro
Population:
10,829,175 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 18.1% (male 1,014,443/female 943,702)
15-64 years: 66.9% (male 3,610,646/female 3,632,365)
65 years and over: 15% (male 699,446/female 928,573) (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 36.79 years
male: 35.3 years
female: 38.29 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.03% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
12.12 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
10.49 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
-1.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 12.89 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14.54 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.73 years
male: 72.15 years
female: 77.51 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.67 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
10,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Serb(s); Montenegrin(s)
adjective: Serbian; Montenegrin
Ethnic groups:
Serb 62.6%, Albanian 16.5%, Montenegrin 5%, Hungarian 3.3%, other 12.6% (1991)
Religions:
Orthodox 65%, Muslim 19%, Roman Catholic 4%, Protestant 1%, other 11%
Languages:
Serbian 95%, Albanian 5%
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.9%
female: 94.1% (2002 est.)
Government Serbia and Montenegro
Country name:
conventional long form: Serbia and Montenegro
conventional short form: none
local long form: Srbija i Crna Gora
local short form: none
former: Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
abbreviation: SCG
Government type:
republic
Capital:
Belgrade
Administrative divisions:
2 republics (republike, singular - republika); and 2 nominally autonomous provinces* (autonomn pokrajine, singular - autonomna pokrajina); Kosovo* (temporarily under UN administration, per UN Security Council Resolution 1244), Montenegro, Serbia, Vojvodina*
Independence:
27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY - now Serbia and Montenegro - formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)
National holiday:
National Day, 27 April
Constitution:
4 February 2003
Legal system:
based on civil law system
Suffrage:
16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Svetozar MAROVIC (since 7 March 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Ministries act as Cabinet
elections: president elected by the parliament for a four-year term; election last held 7 March 2003 (next to be held 2007)
election results: Svetozar MAROVIC elected president by the parliament; vote was Svetozar MAROVIC 65, other 47
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (126 seats - 91 Serbian, 35 Montenegrin - filled by nominees of the two state parliaments for the first two years, after which the Constitutional Charter calls for direct elections
elections: last held 25 February 2003 (next to be held 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Serbian parties: SRS 30, DSS 20, DS 13, G17 Plus 12, SPO-NS 8, SPS 8; Montenegrin parties: DPS 15, SNP 9, SDP 4, DSS 3, NS 2, LSCG 2
Judicial branch:
The Court of Serbia and Montenegro; judges are elected by the Serbia and Montenegro Parliament for six-year terms
note: since the promulgation of the 2003 Constitution, the Federal Court has constitutional and administrative functions; it has an equal number of judges from each republic
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro or DPS [Milo DJUKANOVIC]; Democratic Serbian Party of Montenegro or DSS [Bozidar BOJOVIC]; G17 Plus [Miroljub LABUS]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Liberal Party of Montenegro or LSCG [Miodrag ZIVKOVIC]; People's Party of Montenegro or NS [Dragan SOC]; Power of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Tomislav NIKOLIC]; Serbian Renewal Movement or SPO [Vuk DRASKOVIC]; Serbian Socialist Party or SPS (former Communist Party and party of Slobodan MILOSEVIC) [Ivica DACIC, president of Main Board]; Social Democratic Party of Montenegro or SDP [Ranko KRIVOKAPIC]; Socialist People's Party of Montenegro or SNP [Predrag BULATOVIC]
note: the following political parties participate in elections and institutions only in Kosovo, which has been governed by the UN under UNSCR 1244 since 1999: Albanian Christian Democratic Party or PSHDK [Mark KRASNIQI]; Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]; Citizens' Initiative of Serbia or GIS [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; Democratic Ashkali Party of Kosovo or PDAK [Sabit RRAHMANI]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Ibrahim RUGOVA]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Justice Party of PD [Sylejman CERKEZI]; Kosovo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; Liberal Party of Kosovo or PLK [Gjergj DEDAJ]; Ora [Veton SURROI]; New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Bislim HOTI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Numan BALIC]; Popular Movement of Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]; Prizren-Dragas Initiative or PDI [Ismajl KARADOLAMI]; Serb List for Kosovo and Metohija or SLKM [Oliver IVANOVIC]; United Roma Party of Kosovo or PREBK [Haxhi Zylfi MERXHA]; Vakat [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Political Council for Presevo, Medvedja and Bujanovac or PCPMB [leader NA]; Group for Changes of Montenegro or GZP [Nebojsa MEDOJEVIC]
International organization participation:
BSEC, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAS (observer), ONUB, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael C. POLT
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
consulate(s): Podgorica
note: there is a branch office in Pristina at 30 Nazim Hikmet 38000 Pristina, Kosovo; telephone: [381](38)549-516; FAX: [381](38)549-890
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
Economy Serbia and Montenegro
Economy - overview:
MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on an aggressive market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, a down-sized Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. An agreement rescheduling the country's $4.5 billion Paris Club government debts was concluded in November 2001 - it wrote off 66% of the debt - and the London Club of private creditors forgave $1.7 billion of debt, just over half the total owed, in July 2004. The smaller republic of Montenegro severed its economy from federal control and from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era and continues to maintain its own central bank, uses the euro instead of the Yugoslav dinar as official currency, collects customs tariffs, and manages its own budget. Kosovo's economy continues to transition to a market-based system, and is largely dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Yugoslav dinar are both accepted currencies in Kosovo. While maintaining ultimate oversight, UNMIK continues to work with the European Union and Kosovo's local provisional government to accelerate economic growth, lower unemployment, and attract foreign investment to help Kosovo integrate into regional economic structures. The complexity of Serbia and Montenegro political relationships, slow progress in privatization, legal uncertainty over property rights, scarcity of foreign-investment and a substantial foreign trade deficit are holding back the economy. Arrangements with the IMF, especially requirements for fiscal discipline, are an important element in policy formation. Severe unemployment remains a key political economic problem for this entire region.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$26.27 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
6.5% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $2,400 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 15.5%
industry: 27.6%
services: 56.8% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
3.2 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Unemployment rate:
30%
note: unemployment is approximately 50% in Kosovo (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
30% (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.8% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
14.4% of GDP (2004 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $9.773 billion
expenditures: $10.46 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
80% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
cereals, fruits, vegetables, tobacco, olives; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries:
machine building (aircraft, trucks, and automobiles; tanks and weapons; electrical equipment; agricultural machinery); metallurgy (steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, chromium, antimony, bismuth, cadmium); mining (coal, bauxite, nonferrous ore, iron ore, limestone); consumer goods (textiles, footwear, foodstuffs, appliances); electronics, petroleum products, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate:
1.7% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
31.64 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 62.9%
hydro: 37.1%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
32.33 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:
400 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:
3.3 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:
15,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - consumption:
64,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
NA
Oil - imports:
NA
Oil - proved reserves:
38.75 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
602 million cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
24.07 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
$-3.008 billion (2004 est.)
Exports:
$3.245 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
manufactured goods, food and live animals, raw materials
Exports - partners:
Italy 29%, Germany 16.6%, Austria 7%, Greece 6.7%, France 4.9%, Slovenia 4.1% (2004)
Imports:
$9.538 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, chemicals, food and live animals, raw materials
Imports - partners:
Germany 18.5%, Italy 16.5%, Austria 8.3%, Slovenia 6.7%, Bulgaria 4.7%, France 4.5% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$3.55 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
$12.97 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$2 billion pledged in 2001 (disbursements to follow for several years)
Currency (code):
new Yugoslav dinar (YUM); note - in Montenegro the euro is legal tender; in Kosovo both the euro and the Yugoslav dinar are legal
Currency code:
CSD, EUR
Exchange rates:
new Yugoslav dinars per US dollar - 64.1915 (official rate: 65) (2002)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Serbia and Montenegro
Telephones - main lines in use:
2,611,700 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
3,634,600 (2003)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 381; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 113, FM 194, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios:
3.15 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
more than 771 (including 86 strong stations and 685 low-power stations, plus 20 repeaters in the principal networks; also numerous local or private stations in Serbia and Vojvodina) (1997)
Televisions:
2.75 million (1997)
Internet country code:
.cs
Internet hosts:
20,207 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
9 (2000)
Internet users:
847,000 (2003)
Transportation Serbia and Montenegro
Railways:
total: 4,380 km
standard gauge: 4,380 km 1.435-m gauge (1,364 km electrified) (2004)
Highways:
total: 45,290 km
paved: 28,261 km (including 374 km of expressways)
unpaved: 17,029 km (2002)
Waterways:
587 km
note: Danube River traffic delayed by pontoon bridge at Novi Sad; plan to replace by summer of 2005 (2004)
Pipelines:
gas 3,177 km; oil 393 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:
Bar
Merchant marine:
total: 2
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1
foreign-owned: 2 (Finland 1, Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 3 (2005)
Airports:
44 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 19
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 10
under 914 m: 13 (2004 est.)
Heliports:
4 (2004 est.)
Military Serbia and Montenegro
Military branches:
Serbian and Montenegrin Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije i Crne Gore, VSCG): Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
19 years of age (nine months compulsory service) (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 19-49: 2,389,729 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 19-49: 1,959,166 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males: 81,033 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$654 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
NA
Transnational Issues Serbia and Montenegro
Disputes - international:
Kosovo remains unresolved administered by several thousand peacekeepers from the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since 1999, with Kosovar Albanians overwhelmingly supporting and Serbian officials opposing Kosovo independence; the international community had agreed to begin a process to determine final status but contingency of solidifying multi-ethnic democracy in Kosovo has not been satisfied; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo refuse demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Serbia and Montenegro have delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 99,170 (Bosnia) 188,656 (Croatia)
IDPs: 225,000 (mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering

This page was last updated on 1 November, 2005


 

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