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Mongolia[Country flag of Mongolia]
[Country map of Mongolia]
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Introduction Mongolia
Background:
The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP in a national election in 1996. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000 and produced a coalition government in 2004.
Geography Mongolia
Location:
Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references:
Asia
Area:
total: 1,564,116 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 8,220 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km
Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Climate:
desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain:
vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m
Natural resources:
oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land use:
arable land: 0.77%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.23% (2001)
Irrigated land:
840 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Environment - current issues:
limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia
People Mongolia
Population:
2,791,272 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 28.7% (male 407,547/female 392,440)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 943,418/female 945,063)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 44,413/female 58,391) (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 24.28 years
male: 23.93 years
female: 24.64 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.45% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
21.52 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
7.03 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 53.79 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 57.25 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 50.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.52 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 66.86 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
2.26 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
less than 500 (2003 est)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationality:
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic groups:
Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)
Religions:
Buddhist Lamaist 50%, none 40%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4% (2004)
Languages:
Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98%
female: 97.5% (2002)
Government Mongolia
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
Government type:
mixed parliamentary/presidential
Capital:
Ulaanbaatar
Administrative divisions:
21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govi-Sumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence:
11 July 1921 (from China)
National holiday:
Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Constitution:
12 February 1992
Legal system:
blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Tsakhi ELBEGDORJ (since 20 August 2004); Deputy Prime Minister Chultem ULAAN (since 28 September 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the State Great Hural (parliament) in consultation with the president
elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term; presidential tenure limited to two four-year terms; election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural
election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (MPRP) 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN (DP) 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN (MRP) 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT (M-MNSDP) 12.59%; Tsakhi ELBEGDORJ elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 74 to 0
Legislative branch:
unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms
elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.78%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.42%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - following June 2004 election, two seats in dispute and unoccupied
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Citizens' Will Republican Party or CWRP (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP) [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN]; Democratic Party or DP [R. GONCHIKDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]
note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with CWRP contested June 2004 elections as single party; MDC's leadership dissolved coalition in December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders:
NA
International organization participation:
ARF, AsDB, CP, EBRD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OPCW, OSCE (partner), SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdangiyn BOLD
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela J. SLUTZ
embassy: Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road, C.P.O. 1021, Ulaanbaatar 13
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [976] (11) 329095
FAX: [976] (11) 320776
Flag description:
three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)
Economy Mongolia
Economy - overview:
Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits; copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth due to reform embracing free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000, 2001, and 2002 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolia's primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth improved from 2002 at 4% to 2003 at 5%, due largely to high copper prices and new gold production, with the government claiming a 10.6% growth rate for 2004 that is unconfirmed. Mongolia's economy continues to be heavily impacted by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolia's chief export partner and a main source of the "shadow" or "grey" economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy. The actual size of this grey - largely cash - economy is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally constitute a sizeable portion. Money laundering is growing as an accompanying concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on very favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$5.332 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
10.6% according to official estimate (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $1,900 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 20.6%
industry: 21.4%
services: 58% (2003 est.)
Labor force:
1.488 million (2003)
Labor force - by occupation:
herding/agriculture 42%, mining 4%, manufacturing 6%, trade 14%, services 29%, public sector 5%, other 3.7% (2003)
Unemployment rate:
6.7% (2003)
Population below poverty line:
36.1% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 37% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
44 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11% (2004 est.)
Budget:
revenues: $582 million
expenditures: $602 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops, sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Industries:
construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate:
4.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
2.692 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
2.209 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - exports:
8.2 million kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity - imports:
130.5 million kWh (2004 est.)
Oil - production:
542 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
11,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - exports:
497 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - imports:
11,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Exports:
$853 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Exports - partners:
China 47.8%, US 17.9%, UK 15.7% (2004)
Imports:
$1 billion c.i.f. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Imports - partners:
Russia 33.3%, China 23.6%, Japan 7.4%, South Korea 6%, US 4.6% (2004)
Debt - external:
$1.191 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
$215 million (2003)
Currency (code):
togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Currency code:
MNT
Exchange rates:
togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002), 1,097.7 (2001), 1,076.7 (2000)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Mongolia
Telephones - main lines in use:
142,300 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
404,400 (2004)
Telephone system:
general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas
domestic: very low density of about 6.5 telephones for each thousand persons; two wireless providers cover all but two provinces
international: country code - 976; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 7, FM 62, shortwave 3 (2004)
Radios:
155,900 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
52 (plus 21 provincial repeaters and many low power repeaters) (2004)
Televisions:
168,800 (1999)
Internet country code:
.mn
Internet hosts:
1,000 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
5 (2001)
Internet users:
220,000 (2004)
Transportation Mongolia
Railways:
total: 1,810 km
broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2004)
Highways:
total: 49,256 km
paved: 8,874 km
unpaved: 40,376 km (2002)
Waterways:
580 km
note: only waterway in operation is Lake Khovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orkhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)
Merchant marine:
total: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 339,423 GRT/533,853 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 54, liquefied gas 2, passenger/cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 38 (China 2, Lebanon 1, Philippines 1, Russia 10, Singapore 10, South Korea 1, Syria 1, Thailand 1, Ukraine 1, UAE 4, Vietnam 6) (2005)
Airports:
46 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 15
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 31
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Heliports:
2 (2004 est.)
Military Mongolia
Military branches:
Mongolian Armed Forces: Mongolian People's Army (MPA), Mongolian People's Air Force (MPAF) (2005)
Military service age and obligation:
18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months (2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 736,182 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 570,435 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males: 34,674 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$23.1 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.2% (FY02)
Transnational Issues Mongolia
Disputes - international:
none

This page was last updated on 1 November, 2005


 

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