"There is not a set definition of Pan-Africanism...[It] is an idea. Pan-Africanism grew out of 19th century efforts to end slavery and the slave trade. At this time blacks worldwide were being oppressed. Slavery existed in America, South America, and the Carribean. Also the colonization of Africa (born out of the Berlin Conference of 1884 & 85) had begun. As a result of these events black people world wide began to realize that they faced common problems (slavery, colonization, and racism), and that it would be to their benefit to work together in an effort to solve these problems. Out of this realization came the Pan African Conferences of 1900 (London), 1919 (Paris), 1921 (London, Brussels, Paris), 1923 (London), 1927 (New York), and the last official one was in 1949. Some of the most influential blacks of the time participated in these meetings: Slyvester Williams, W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Kwame Nkrumah, etc. The belief that people of African descent throughout the Diaspora (meaning spread throughout the world) share a common history, culture, and experience and should stick together. This belief is the principle idea behind Panafricanism. Bringing black people throughout the world together because of our common culture. Pan-Africanism can be expressed through history, literature, music, art, film, clothing, and food."